Evolution of Universe
Dr. Arun Bansal
अव्यक्ताद्व्यक्तयः सर्वाः प्रभवन्त्यहरागमे। रात्र्यागमे प्रलीयन्ते तत्रैवाव्यक्तसंज्ञके।। संपूर्ण चराचर भूतगण ब्रह्मा के दिन के प्रवेशकाल में अव्यक्त से अर्थात् ब्रह्मा के सूक्ष्म शरीर से उत्पन्न होते हैं और ब्रह्मा की रात्रि के प्रवेशकाल में उस अव्यक्त नामक ब्रह्मा के सूक्ष्म शरीर में लीन हो जाते हैं। All the living or the non living come into existance at the dawn of the day of Brahma the unmanifested and merge into the same at the onset of the night. Emergence and evolution of Universe is still a mystery to scientists as there are many unanswered questions to how this Universe was formed. When it was formed? Why this Universe was formed? In the year 1929 Edwin Hubble made a startling revelation about Universe. He was the first one who discovered that all the celestial objects and galaxies in the universe are constantly moving apart from each other. In other words he said that Universe is expanding constantly. This indicates that in earlier times celestial objects were closely conjunct with each other and probably all celestial objects were conjunct very closely with each other about 10 to 20 trillions of years ago. At that time all celestial objects may be too close to be over lapping with each other at a particular point and thus the whole universe would have been in the shape of a small dot or point with a high density at that time.This form of Universe was extremely hot with high density. Slowly and slowly this universe started expanding due to some reason which is not yet very clear and universe emerged with a big bang and after this all the celestial objects started to move apart from each other. • Energy was in the form of Photons after 10-43 seconds of big bang. • Basic molecules like Quark and anti Quark started forming after 10-34 seconds of big bang. The size of Universe was like an orange at this time. • After 10-10 seconds Quarks and anti Quarks clashed with each other and vanished. Protons and Neutrons were formed due to this clash. • Universe started to take form after one second of big bang. Temperature at that time was about a trillion degree Celsius. At this time proton and neutrons jointly formed the element which is known as Hydrogen, Helium etc. • After three minutes of big bang temperature was down up to one hundred billion degree Celsius. Elements and celestial radiations were formed in this period. Celestial radiations are still present in the Universe and can be felt. • Universe was constantly expanding but even after three lakh years of big bang universe was not like the universe of today. Elements and radiations started separating from each other and at the same time electrons with protons and neutrons started forming atom and atoms started forming molecules. • Universe started to take a particular shape approximately after one billion years of big bang. At this time the Quasar Proto galaxy stars were formed. This is the initial form of galaxy. Stars were formed till this time and stars were forming heavy elements after burning hydrogen. • Today approximately after 15 hundred million years of big bang stars and their solar system is formed. Atoms have formed complex molecules. Out of these complex molecules some molecules are basic particles of life. Universe is still expanding as Galaxies and celestial objects are continuously moving apart from each other in this Universe. This process is slowing down day by day. In future it may be possible that the gravitational pull of celestial objects will completely stop the expansion of this universe. From this time this process of expansion will be reversed because the Universe will start to shrink. All celestial objects will start coming closer to each other due to their gravitational pull and one day they will come very close to each other in the form of a dot. After this again there will be a big bang and a new universe will emerge and the process of expansion will start again. This process is going on from the time immemorial. Our universe is only one out of many Universes which are formed as a result of this constant process of expansion and shrinkage. When all the celestial objects come together in the form of a dot it is called big shrinkage. One day our Universe will also end due to its big shrinkage. This shrinkage process will start approximately 1.5 hundred billion years later. Big bang theory is well accepted scientific theory within the scientific community. How was the matter formed in this universe? To answer this question scientist gave a standard model in which there are 12 Bosons and 12 Fermions. One Boson which gives mass to all molecules is known as Higgs Boson. These 24 particles are the base to form electron, proton and neutron which together form atom and these atoms form matter. The assumption of Higgs Boson was developed in the year 1964 but nobody was able to test it properly at that time because it required extremely high levels of energy to create boson in the laboratory and even after that it could survive only for 3X10-25 seconds. To view and observe this boson a laboratory was formed on the border of Switzerland and France. This laboratory was formed 300 feet below the surface and it is 27 Kilometer long place in a tunnel. In this tunnel shaped laboratory neutrons with high energy from two opposite directions were collided in Large Hadrons Collider (LHC). Higgs Boson was emerged out of this collision. Thus Higgs Boson was first created and seen on 4th July 2012 in this laboratory. In this experiment a situation was created which was almost similar to situation at the time of big bang. Higgs Boson gives mass to each and every particle hence this particle is very much important in the formation of universe. It is believed in Hindu religion that god is present in every particle. It is probably in the form of this boson which gives the basic entity ‘mass’ to the particle. That is why scientists too have preferred to call it ‘God particle’. Thus with this experiment scientists have made a great discovery about the origin of Universe and slowly and slowly they are coming closer to the theory that Universe has emerged from nothing and will disappear in nothing which is already established by our sages a thousands of years ago.